(C) Peter Meiers - http://www.fluoride-history.de


Historic Notes - Part  I



"Dr. Floyd de Eds has resigned from the position of assistant professor of pharmacology, at Stanford University, to take the position of pharmacologist at the U. S. Hygienic Laboratory, Washington D.C." - Science 64 (Nov. 4, 1927) 422 -



Will Keith Kellogg, of Battle Creek, Michigan,  assignor to Kellogg Company, filed US Patent 1,925,255 on "Cereal Food" (patented Sept. 5, 1933). 



Will Keith Kellogg, owner of Kellogg Company, founded the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "donating most of his fortune to it including 52 per cent of the common stock of the W. K. Kellogg Company, producer of breakfast foods" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 43 (Dec. 1951) 755 -. With this majority of the common stock the Foundation would have control over the fate of Kellogg Company.

"Dr. Thomas Parran, jr., assistant surgeon general in the U. S. Public Health Service, was appointed New York State commissioner of health on February 19. His appointment was confirmed by the Senate on March 5." - Science 71 (March 21, 1930) 311 -

"Blanketed by the debates over the tariff, the treaty and the Supreme Court, a bill has slipped through Congress, almost unnoticed, which will have a place in governmental history. It sets up a National Institute of Health. ... Under the Ransdell bill the Hygienic Laboratory is made the nucleus of the new establishment, which will be devoted to the purpose of inquiring into the cause, prevention and cure of diseases. The Treasury Department is specifically authorized to accept gifts from private sources for the furtherance of these investigations, much as the Library of Congress was authorized some years ago to accept donations in its field. ..." - Science 71 (May 30, 1930) 562 -

"... The Secretary of the Treasury has recently accepted a gift of $100,000 offered by the Chemical Foundation Inc., through its president, Francis P. Garvan, under the provisions of the act of May 26, 1930, which authorizes the government to accept donations and to create a system of fellowships, etc., in the National Institute of Health. ..." - Science 72 (Aug. 29, 1930) 214 -



BACK TO THE ROOTS: "Dr. Floyd de Eds, formerly of the National Institute of Health of the U. S. Public Health Service, has been appointed senior toxicologist for the U. S. Department of Agriculture. He will be stationed in the department of pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, San Francisco, to carry on investigation of chronic intoxications for the bureau of chemistry and soils." - Science 74 (Oct. 2, 1931) 335 -



"Sir James Crichton-Browne, London, known for his work on mental and nervous diseases, celebrated his ninety-second birthday on November 29." - Science 76 (Dec. 23, 1932) 589 -



A review on "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication", by Floyd de Eds, was published in the journal "Medicine" (Baltimore) Vol. 12 (1933) pp. 1-60.

Frank James McClure reviewed some of the early literature on fluorine and its physiological effects (Physiol. Rev. 13 (1933) 277-300).



"The public attitude is impressed by, and is inclined to adopt as its own, that which it reads and that which it sees. Tell an individual or a community anything long enough or often enough and faith in its truth will almost certainly be established." - Christiansen J.F.: "The relation of certain professional trends to private practice", J. Am. Dent. Assn. 21 (Oct. 1934) 1763  



"Dr. Henry Klein, formerly associated with Dr. E. V. McCollum at the School of Hygiene and Public Health, the Johns Hopkins University, has been appointed to the staff of the Dental College of the University of Detroit."  - Science 81 (June 21, 1935) 613 -

"Thus it follows, that the outstanding accomplishment this year has been the consolidation of our Association into a better integrated, closer coordinated and more aggressive organization." - Casto F.M., "Presidential Address", J. Am. Dent. Assn. 22 (Dec. 1935) 2019 



"Thomas Parran: Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service. ... In 1930, Governor Roosevelt appointed the then Assistant Surgeon General to the position of health commissioner for the State of New York, and when Hugh S. Cumming recently retired as Surgeon General, President Roosevelt appointed Dr. Parran to the position... Dr. Parran is president of the American Public Health Association, trustee of the Phipps Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, a scientific director of the Rockefeller Foundation and a member of the technical board of the Milbank Memorial Fund." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 23 (1936) 2206 -

Edward S. Godfrey, M.D., "was appointed State Commissioner by Governor Lehman to succeed Thomas Parran, M.D." - Am. J. Publ. Health 37 (July 1947) 951 -

Dr. Frank James McClure was hired by the National Institute of Health in 1936. - J.Am. Dent. Assoc. 49 (Aug. 1954) 249 -

Dr. William Lorne Hutton, Brantford Medical Officer of Health -who later would become famous as the ´father of fluoridation in Canada´, was re-elected president of the "Eugenics Society of Canada". "Critical of indifference to heredity - Dr. W. L. Hutton addresses Eugenics Society. Is re-elected" - (Brantford) Expositor, Feb. 18, 1936. (See also: William Lorne Hutton Papers) - 

U.S. Patent 2,039,880 was issued on May 5, 1936. Inventor: Francis A. Bull, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Subject: "Amalgam Filling for Teeth", filed on Jan. 10, 1934

W. H. Vanderploeg, trustee of the Kellogg Foundation from 1936 to 1957, was also director of Kellogg Company. - W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "The first half century, 1930-1980", Battle Creek 1979 -



"Plans for the construction of three new buildings to provide better facilities for the National Institute of Health have been announced and are described in the Star, Washington. The buildings will be erected on a 45-acre-tract of wooded land, 1 1/2 miles beyond Bethesda, Md., on the Rockville highway. The property was donated to the United States Public Health Service for this purpose in 1935 by the late Luke I. Wilson, of Washington." - Science 86 (Sept. 3, 1937) 216 -

First International Sugar Agreement between Governments (incl. USA): London May 6, 1937, "International Agreement regarding the regulation of production and marketing of sugar, and Protocol": http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1937/16.html

The University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, received $70,000 from Kellogg Foundation "for the enlargement of the faculty to provide graduate and postgraduate courses for practicing dentists - 1937-1940 inclusive. - W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "The first eleven years", 1942, pp. 167 and 177-

"Wisconsin: Francis A. Bull, of Milwaukee, has been appointed supervisor of dental education on the staff of the state board of health." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 24 (1937) 659 -

An Oral Health Group was formed within the American Public Health Association (Am. J. P. Health 29 (April 1939) 375). "Thursday, October 7, a luncheon meeting of the oral health group was held at the Pennsylvania Hotel. Those present included forty-five dental members of the American Public Health Association and others from fifteen states and Canada. John Oppie McCall was appointed chairman of the group for the coming year and Harry Strusser was appointed secretary. They were instructed to prepare a program for next year´s meeting at Kansas City." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 24 (1937) 2041 -



In 1938, "... the dental profession of Michigan and the Dental School of the University of Michigan were fortunate enough to receive such recognition from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan, which materialized its appreciation of dental service to the public by an appropriation of nearly half a million dollars to be used for erecting a building to be known as the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute for Graduate and Postgraduate Dental Education. ... Compared to medicine, dentistry has failed by far to receive its merited share of health agency benefactions, and this lack of endowment has been a serious handicap in its endeavor to contribute all that it should and could  toward the development of the biologic aspect of dentistry. ... Mr. Kellogg, in establishing the foundation, gave serious thought to the character of health welfare philanthropy that would be of the most good to the greatest number. His experience in the nutritional field convinced him that any plan for health benefits to the community would have to evolve through education of and benefit to the younger generation, in that the adult was adamant to any change that would disturb a long range habit development. Mr. Kellogg therefore resolved to provide for an attack upon the general health problem through health care for children, the most hopeful approach being through the care of the mouth and teeth." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 29 (July 1, 1942) 1254 - 



"David B. Ast, D.D.S., has been appointed Assistant Director for Oral Hygiene, in the Division of Maternity, Infancy and Child Hygiene, of the New York State Department of Health, Albany, N. Y." - Am. J. Publ. Health 29 (March 1939) 301 - 

"Edward S. Godfrey, Jr., M.D., Albany, N.Y., has been reappointed for a term of 4 years as Commissioner of Health of New York State" - Am. J. Publ. Health 29 (March 1939) 301 -

Francis A. Bull, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is first vice-president of the American Dental Association. - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 26 (1939) 1596 -

"Dr. Dean Burk, associate professor of biochemistry at Cornell University Medical College, New York City, has been appointed senior chemist in the National Cancer Institute of the U. S. Public Health Service. He will be engaged in a study of tissue metabolism fundamental to cancer, under the auspices of a grant from the National Advisory Cancer Council made to the department of biochemistry. Collaborating in the investigations will be Dr. Fritz Lipmann, formerly fellow at the Rockefeller Institute ..." - Science 90 (1939) 135 -  

The University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, received $256,500 "toward the construction and equipment of a building for postgraduate and graduate dental study" in 1939 - W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "The first eleven years", 1942, pp. 167 and 177-



"In carrying out their studies on caries, Dental Officer Henry Klein and Passed Assistant Surgeon Carroll E. Palmer have sent in a progress report, being the tenth in the series. They describe a system for the collection and analysis of dental examination findings. The system, now under test for over three years in 14,000 examinations has proved generally adequate for studies on the epidemiology of dental caries. Dental Surgeon H. T. Dean has prepared a resume of investigations on fluorine, mottled enamel, and dental caries, pointing out the role of water and noting the results attained in progressive work. He has appended a bibliography of outstanding studies by service and other workers." - Summary of Scientific Output of the National Institute of Health, Feb. 1940, in the R.R. Harris papers, NLM -

"Passed Assistant Surgeon Carroll E. Palmer and dental officer Henry Klein have found that a mathematical description of the age distribution of eruption of the separate morphological types of teeth could be obtained through the use of the normal probability (Gaussian) frequency function. They have computed a table of the double integral values - the first of the kind made available as far as known. Their observations and the table have just been published." - Summary of Scientific Output of the National Institute of Health, April 1940; in the R.R. Harris papers, NLM - 

"Dental Surgeon H. Trendley Dean, Consultant Philip Jay, Passed Assistant Dental Surgeon F. A. Arnold and Senior Chemist Elias Elvove have reported that Bauxite, Arkansas, pupils with moderate to severe mottled enamel and exposed to fluoride-free water for the past 12 years showed markedly less dental caries than mottled enamel free Benton, Arkansas, pupils who have been using fluoride-free water during their entire lives." - Summary of Scientific Output by the National Institute of Health, November 1940; in the R.R. Harris papers, NLM -

On April 3, 1940, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, "there was dedicated, to the furtherance of the cause of dental care, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute, for the promotion of graduate and postgraduate dental education under the sponsorship and direction of the school of dentistry of the University. ... Emory Morris, D.D.S., treasurer and associate director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, presented the magnificient building ... Russell Bunting, dean of the dental school in responding to the gift on behalf of the faculty of the school of dentistry, declared that the Institute was a dream of the faculty of the dental school realized and that the day was a memorable one in the history of the dental school and dentistry at large. He said: ´The faculty of the dental school is grateful to the Kellogg Foundation and to the United States Government for this munificient gift. We are proud that the University of Michigan was chosen as the recipient. We are impressed and made humble by the responsibilities and obligations laid upon us by the gift; but we accept these responsibilities and obligations and will do all that we can do to advance dental education.´" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 27 (May 1940) 817 -

In 1940, Francis A. Bull received his Master´s Degree in Public Health from the University of Michigan. ..." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 59 (July 1959) 120 -

"It has been announced that George B. Darling, Dr. P.H., Associate Director, and Emory W. Morris, D.D.S., Associate Executive Director, were elected President and General Director, respectively, of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, succeeding the late Dr. Stuart Pritchard who held both positions." - Am. J. Publ. Health 30 (Dec. 1940) 1496 - Dr. Morris received his dental degree from the School of Dentistry, University of Michigan. He joined the Kellogg Foundation in 1933 as director of dental education and has been with the Foundation since then. - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 53 (Oct. 1956) 497 -



"The Oral Health Group of the American Public Health Association has announced the election of Dr. C. R. Taylor of the Bureau of Public Health Dentistry, Michigan Department of Health, as its new Secretary, with Dr. A. O. Gruebbel of Missouri as Chairman." - Am. J. Publ. Health 32 (Jan. 1942) 119 -

"In their studies on the dental status of adult male mine- and smelter-workers, Associate Statistician H. P. Brinton and Drs. D. C. Johnston and E. O. Thompson of the Utah State Board of Health, a lower decayed-missing-filled rate was found in coal miners up to 35 years of age than in metal- and smelter-workers. This was probably due to little or no exposure to lead." - Summary of Scientific Output of the National Institute of Health, April 1941; in the R.R. Harris papers, NLM -

For the year ended August 31, 1941, the School of Dentistry of the University of Michigan received another $20,000 for enlargment of the faculty to provide graduate and postgraduate courses for practicing dentists; the School of Public Health of Michigan University received $250,000 "toward the cost of obtaining a site, construction and equipping a new building for the School of Public Health", another $250,000 for the "enlargement of the teaching activities of the School of Public Health for the period 1941-1951", as well as $25,000 "to provide additional facilities for postgraduate and continued education in Public Health"  - W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "The first eleven years", 1942, pp. 167 and 177-

In 1941, the Kellogg Foundation "made an additional grant of $110,000 to the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, to provide funds for the rehabilitation of the undergraduate technical laboratories and to provide complete instrument kits for the use of all undergraduate students during the course of instruction." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 29 (July 1, 1942) 1254-1257 -

New School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. The reorganization of the work in hygiene, public health and preventive medicine had been for some time under discussion at the University of Michigan. "As early as August 1939, on recommendation of the Division of Health Sciences, the regents authorized, when it should become possible, the establishment of an independent unit of the University to carry on this type of activity. It may now be announced, that the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, of Battle Creek, and the Rockefeller Foundation, of New York, have each agreed to provide $500,000 for the establishment of the new school, not more than one half of the total sum of $1,000,000 to be available for site, building and equipment, and the remainder to be used over a ten-year period for its initial expenses of operation. The regents in December accepted the proffer of these sums, subject to the conditions attached, which involve both the method of applying the funds, as outlined above, and the formation of a plan of organization satisfactory to the two foundations and the university. ... The long-continued interest of the Rockefeller Foundation in public health is well known. The trustees of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation are led to participate in the enterprise because of their conviction that public health education is important and a strong school of public health is essential to the success of the Michigan Community Health Project." - Science 93 (Feb. 14, 1941) 151 -

Further progress, regarding the School of Public Health, was announced in the American Journal of Public Health: "Dr. Henry F. Vaughan, recently Commissioner of Health of Detroit, Michigan, has been appointed dean of the new School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Dr. Vaughan, who is Professor of Public Health, was also made chairman of the Department of Public Health Practice. Public Health work at the University of Michigan has been shifted from the Division of Hygiene and Public Health with the transfer of Dr. John Sunbdwall, Professor of Hygiene and Public Health, and of Dr. Nathan Sinai, Pfofessor of Public Health, to the new School of Public Health. Other members of the faculty include Dr. Thomas Francis, professor of epidemiology and chairman of the department, Dr. Lowell J. Coggershall, who is professor of epidemiology,... Kenneth A. Easlick, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Public Health Dentistry. ... Among the newly appointed non-resident lecturers in the School of Public Health are ... Haven Emerson, M.D.,  ... Matthew Kinde, M.D., ... William S. Sadler, M.D., ... Marguerite Wales, M.A." - Am. J. Publ. Health 31 (Oct. 1941) 1115-6 - Vaughan, Emerson, Kinde and Sadler are trustees of the Kellogg Foundation, Marguerite Wales is a member of of the Foundation´s Program Staff  - W. K. Kellogg Foundation, "The first eleven years, 1930-1941", Battle Creek, 1942, and "The first half century, 1930-1980", Battle Creek 1979 - Francis and Coggershall belong to the Rockefeller Foundation - Science 94 (Nov. 14, 1941) 455-6 -



"The Oral Health Group of the A. P. H. A., in session at St. Louis, Mo., in October 1942, appointed the following officers: - Chairman: C. R. Taylor, D.D.S., Lansing, Michigan; - Secretary: Walter J. Pelton, D.D.S., Washington, D.C." - Am. J. Publ. Health 33 (Jan. 1943) 105

According to a summary of the "First eleven years" (1942), the Kellogg Foundation holds common stocks (each about $100,000) inter alia of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Dow Chemical CompanyEastman Kodak Company, General Motors Company, Monsanto Chemical CompanyProcter & Gamble Company, Standard Oil, Union Carbide and Carbon, besides Kellogg Company. (By 1955 they held also shares of Aluminum Company of America as well as preferred stocks of Kellogg Company"The first 25 years" (1955))

"Dr. Emory W. Morris, of the Kellogg Foundation, has been made chairman of the recently established Council on Dental Health of the American Dental Association." - Science 96 (1942) 424 -



"Emory W. Morris, treasurer, assistant secretary and General Director of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation since 1940, was elected president of the foundation´s board of trustees at the recent annual election of officers in Battle Creek. Dr. Morris, who is chariman of the Council on Dental Health of the American Dental Association, succeeded George B. Darling, Dr. P.H., who has become a member of the National Research Council, Washington, D.C." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 31 (1944) 170 -  



"All studies show, in reference to dental needs, that the amount of dental neglect, of dental ill health, varies inversely with family income ... We find, Mr. Chairman, as we make studies of the geographic distribution of dentists in trhe country the same pattern that your committee has found in reference to the distribution of doctors and nurses and hospitals. In areas of lowest income, there is the lowest ratio of dentists. ... In the low income groups naturally there is less money to be spent for dental care, and the amount of dental care given is much less than in the higher income groups." - Parran T.: "Senate hearings on dental research and grants-in-aid bills", J. Am. Dent. Assn. 32 (1945) 1042



William R. Davis, a graduate of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, director of the Bureau of Public Health Dentistry in the Michigan Department of Health since 1926, retired [died in 1959 aged 87] - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 60 (April 1960) 529 -



"Dr. Godfrey retires as New York State Commissioner of Health" - Am. J. Publ. Health 37 (July 1947) 951 -

"On July 1, 1947, Governor Dewey of New York announced the appointment of Herman E. Hilleboe, M.D., as New York State Health Commissioner. He was previously assistant Surgeon General and Associate Chief of the Bureau of State Services of the U. S. Public Health Service" - Am. J. Publ. Health 37 (Aug. 1947) 1077 -



"Leonard A. Scheele, M.D., was named to succeed Thomas Parran as surgeon general of the United States Public Health Service when Dr. Parran´s term expired on April 6." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 36 (1948) 415



"Carl Voegtlin, former director of cancer research and retired chief of the National Cancer Institute of the U. S. Public Health Service, has been elected honorary member of the Swiss Academy of the Medical Sciences"  - Science 110 (July 15, 1949) 77 -

"The 1949 Pittsburgh Award of the American Chemical Society´s Pittsburgh section has been presented to H. V. Churchill, chief analytical chemist of the Aluminum Company of America" - Science 110 (Dec. 23, 1949) 698 -

"New laboratory facilities for chemical and physical research by the KELLEX CORPORATION for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in its nuclear reactor development program are now in operation at the Jersey City plant of the Morris W. Kellogg Company, the parent Company. The laboratory will be headed by W. A. Bain, director of chemical research." - Science 110 (July 15, 1949) 79 - 



"The KELLEX CORPORATION of New York, recently purchased by the Vitro Manufacturing Company from the M. W. Kellogg Company, has elected Albert L. Baker president, and Wiliam H. Denne Jr. vice president and general manager." - (Science 112 (July 21, 1950) 99 -

"R. E. Dyer, director of the National Institutes of Health, will retire October 1, after 34 years with the U. S. Public Health Service. Dr. Dyer will become director of research at the Rober Winship Clinic, Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Ga." - Science 112 (Sept. 22, 1950) 346 -

Kellogg Foundation grants. "An important new project has been undertaken by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, Mich., which ´aims to improve the quality of administration in public school systems. ... The University of Chicago, Harvard University, and Teachers College, Columbia University, have received grants in excess of $200,000 each and the Foundation estimates that the grants for this project over a 5 year period may reach $3,000,000." The University of Detroit received "$66,500 for training of dental hygienists in a two year course and a smaller grant went to the Canadian Dental Association for a survey of Canadian Dental Schools..." - Am. J. Publ. Health 40 (Dec. 1950) 1511 -   



Will Keith Kellogg, owner of Kellogg Company and founder of the Kellogg Foundation, died on Oct. 6 at the age of 91 - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 43 (Dec. 1951) 755 -

Annual report of the Kellogg Foundation, 1951-1952, published. "The W.K. Kellogg Foundation prepared an annual report in each of the years previous to 1951-1952, but this report is the first issue to be published and made available to the public. ... Of interest to dentists is the amount of funds spent by the Foundation for dentistry. This amounted to almost $2,800,000, or eight per cent of the total, for the 22 years. Most of this amount was spent to improve dental education." - F.C.Cady,  J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 48 (Feb. 1954) 232-3 -



John G. Frisch, of Madison, Wisconsin, "who had been a principal speaker at the Conference of State Society Officers September 7, died a few hours after returning to his home September 11. He was 53 years old. Author of several papers on fluoridation, Dr. Frisch had engaged in research, in conjunction with Frederick McKay, on caries incidence in children who lived where fluorides occur naturally in water." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 45 (1952) 503

Delaney Committee Report released after hearings on fluoridation. The American Dental Association comments: "... On the other hand, the report´s conclusions may influence the Public Health Service budget for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1952. If the committee reports any adverse observations on fluoridation, it will decrease prospects on an allocation of funds to the states for technical assistance in fluoridation. Pointing up this possibility is the fact that Rep. E. H. Hedrick (D., W.Va.), a member of the Delaney Committee, is also a member of the powerful appropriations subcommittee that decides the size of the Public Health Service budget." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 44 (1952) 461

"A recommendation that Swiss cities fluoridate their water supplies was passed at the 1952 meeting of the Swiss Odontological Society" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 45 (Sept. 1952) 367 -



"In April, a program of fluoridation of public water supplies will be instituted in Curico, Chile. The project will be conducted by the School of Public Health, College of Dentists of Chile, and will be sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, reports Raul Munoz Inza of Santiago, president of the College." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 46 (Feb. 1953) 229



"Timothy A. Hardgrove of Fond du Lac, Wis., prominent dental researcher and former vice-president of the Association in 1937-38, died December 15 at the age of 79. Dr. Hardgrove, affectionatley and nationally known as "Tim", was a leader in the movement to promote fluoridation of public water supplies and was recently honored by the Wisconsin State Medical Society for having achieved singular recognition as a distinguished practitioner, an imaginative dental researcher and as a leader among men. ... He was a long-time chairman of the Wisconsin State Dental Society´s fluorine study committee ..." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 48 (1954) 103 -



"The W. K. Kellogg Foundation made grants of $116,833 for programs in dentistry during the 1953-54 fiscal year. ... Included in the year´s appropriations but not expended was $250,000 to the American Dental Association for a survey of the dental profession. The survey is still in the planning stage." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 50 (Feb. 1955) 239 -

"The dental member should be aggressive in his stand for a policy on water fluoridation. It really does not make sense to have the efforts of the dental director counteracted by contrary statements made by another member of the state health department." - Oliver O.A.: "Role of the dentist on state and local boards of health", J. Am. Dent. Assn. 51 (1955) 451 -



"Leonard Scheele resigns Surgeon General´s post to become president of Warner-Chilcott Laboratories, a pharmaceutical firm" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 53 (Aug. 1956) 254 -

"Leroy Burney heads U.S.P.H.S.; succeeds Leonard Scheele" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 53 ( Sept. 1956) 380 -

"One can see that EMELEUS (1948) was right when he wrote that the then recent but already extensive use of fluorine compounds would continue to expand." - Bredemann G.: Biochemistry and physiology of fluorine, Berlin 1956, p. 142



"Sweden Medical Board urges adoption of fluoridation" - Among those who participated in the preparation of the report: Y. Ericsson, deputy professor. - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 58 (Feb. 1959) 113 -

"Francis A. Bull, 62, director of the dental division of the Wisconsin State Board of Health for many years, died of a heart ailment April 11. ... In 1940 he received his Master´s Degree in Public Health from the University of Michigan. ..." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 59 (July 1959) 120 -

"W. L. Hutton, M.D., 71, Medical Health Officer of Brantford, Ontario, died July 30. Called ´the father of fluoridation in Canada,´ Dr. Hutton was the first health authority in the world to take action to fluoridate the water supply over which he exercised responsibility, and for which he accepted full responsibility." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 59 (Sept. 1959) 539 -

"Frederick S. McKay, 85, died August 21 in Colorado Springs, Colo., where he made his home". - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 59 (Oct. 1959) 778 -

"New Officers named to A.A.A.S. section on dentistry. At the council meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science the following elections are of dental interest: Elected by the section committee of section Nd (dentistry): member at large, Gerald J. Cox, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; section secretary, Reidar F. Sognnaes, Harvard University; and vice-president and chairman, Maynard K. Hine, Indiana University. H. Trendley Dean, secretary of the council on dental research of the American Dental Association, was elected to the committee on nominations of the A.A.A.S. Council." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 58 (1959) 122 -   Reidar F. Sognnaes "succeeds Russell Bunting, professor of oral pathology and former dean of the School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, who had served as secretary of the section on dentistry for eight years" - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 58 (1959) 116 -



"Died.  Dr. Kenneth A. Easlick, Ann Arbor, Mich., Dec. 21 at the age of 86. Dr. Easlick, who retired from the University of Michigan in 1963, was professor emeritus of dental public health and of dentistry after serving 35 years on the faculty. He engaged in some of the earliest research in clinical dentistry for children, developed a plan for one of the first fluoridation research projects, and in the 1940´s developed the first graduate program in dental public health in the country." - J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 100 (1980) 422 -

Re. Easlick: "He supervised one of the first fluoridation plans, a research project of one of his graduate students." - Am. J. Publ. Health 70.1 (1980) 638 -